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Bolter, Jay David and Gruisin, Robert. “Chap I. Theory” in Remediation. pg. 22-84

Ernst, Wolfgang. “Media Archaeography: Method and Machine versus History and Narrative of Media” in Media Archaeology. Eds. Erkki Huhtamo and Jussi Parikka. Berkeley, Calif: University of California Press, 2011. pgs. 239-255.

Gitelman, Lisa. “Introduction” in Always Already New. pgs. 1-23.

Marshall McLuhan, “The Medium is the Message” in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. pgs. 7-21.