Browse Items (509 total)

Early BBS
The birth of social media this prerequisite of citizen journalism can date back to the age before the prevalence of World Wide Web. Developed in the 1970s, bulletin board systems, consisting of PCs, modems and the telephone line, were in many ways a…
Item Type: Technology

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Forerunner of the Associated Press (AP) was organized by a group of American publishers in order to acquire news and information from Europe. Primarily, correspondents and news bureaus aggregated as members in this non-profit, cooperative and…
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Founded in 1922 as a nonprofit professional organization, ASNE promotes fair, principled journalism, defends and protects First Amendment rights, and fights for freedom of information and open government. A year later, the society issued a code of…
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In the 1986 World Cup quarterfinals, Argentinian national football player Diego Maradona made contact with the soccer ball with his hand and as a result, the ball was knocked past the goalkeeper (seen right) and into the goal. The controversial goal…
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The first instance of “canon” referring to the distinction between the official text written by an author to differentiate it from fan-created works occurred in scholarship surrounding Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes stories. One such…
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Beginning in the early 19th century, Western missionaries sought to print the Chinese Bible for missionary purposes, and in the process, they brought Western printing technology to China. According to Zhang Xiumin in his The History of Chinese…
Item Type: Technology

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This image features the first rugby-style football game to be played in North America. The match featured the college teams from Harvard University and McGill University. It is a composite image created by Scottish photographer William Notman,…
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T.D. Rice performed a song and dance routine based on a disabled slave he observed during his travels. This “Jim Crow” character became immediately popular with Northern, middle-class audiences, inspiring generations of blackface performers well into…
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"[Jacques-Henri] Lartigue loved everything about cars— their intriguing look, the accoutrements of the driver, the eventual flat tire... Swinging his camera parallel to the road in a movement that followed the car, Lartigue barely managed to catch…
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In 1955, Chuck Berry was signed to major label Chess Records. He recorded a version of "Ida Red" that would then become "Maybellene," which reached #5 on Billboard's overall chart and #1 for R&B. But R&B would prove retrospectively to be a misnomer:…
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This image of famed boxer Muhammad Ali’s rematch with Sonny Liston demonstrates not only the artistry of sports photography, but the stylistic significance of candid moments and sincere emotionality. According to reports from attendees of the match,…
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In 1968, American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos, seen here with Australian runner Peter Norman, raised black-gloved fists on the award podium at the summer Olympics as a gesture of protest for human rights (and in particular for Black…
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The method of photography known as strip photography is a technique that effectively captures high-speed horizontal movement by focusing solely on that which is moving in front of the lens and "ignoring" stationary objects. Objects in motion over…
Item Type: Technology

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In 1930, the first of what would later become known in the fan world as a “fanzine” was published. Titled “The Comet,” it was produced in Chicago in 1930 by Raymond Arthur Palmer and the Science Correspondence Club. These early fanzines consisted…
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April 15, 1900 The Exposition Universelle of 1900, otherwise known as the 1900 Paris Exposition, featured a series of photographs compiled by W. E. B. Du Bois and titled “The Exhibit of American Negroes. There were 363 images that showed…
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In 1878, renowned motion photographer Eadweard Muybridge was commissioned by Leland Stanford, a racehorse owner, to help solve a popular question of the era: whether a racehorse in motion was at any point entirely clear of the ground. Using 12…
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"Spirit of the Past"
Photographer Edward S. Curtis begins creating The North American Indian, a forty-volume edition of photogravures and writings that attempt to illustrate Native American life to the mass public. He is the first to document and cite the phenomenon of a…
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Both an amateur cricket player and an amateur photographer, George Beldam, a "man of leisure," extensively photographed athletes in the early 20th century. The above photograph of celebrated cricket player Victor Trumper was featured in CB Fry's 1905…
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“To Fulfill their Rights” published by the White House. This pamphlet, which plays on an earlier conference called “To Ensure Their Rights” documents the speeches that occurred at the white house in June of 1966, when groups from around the U.S. came…
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Originally an idea to organize “groups” on a nascent social media platform, the hashtag as we know it -- a “#” character used to tag, search, aggregate, and promote social media posts -- is credited as the brainchild of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) fan…
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